University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal <p>The DU Undergraduate Research Journal is a biannual, peer reviewed publication of research articles from all undergraduate disciplines. The mission of DUURJ is to encourage, recognize, and celebrate intellectual activity that occurs outside of the classroom, though exemplary research conducted in classroom settings may also be displayed. The journal staff is comprised entirely of&nbsp; DU undergraduate students and works in conjunction with the Undergraduate Research Association to promote academic research across all disciplines.</p> <p>DUURJ accepts manuscripts on a rolling basis. For information on submission guidelines, click <a href="">here</a>. If you have questions about how to submit, please see <a href="" data-external="true">here</a> or contact us directly at If you are interested in joining DUURJ as an editor, please email us at;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Thane Gehring) (Kari Cobb) Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Recidivism: A Case Study of Reentry Resources and their Impact on Successful Reentry Post-Incarceration <p>Recidivism is a prominent issue in the criminal justice system today as it leads to an increase in incarcerated populations and increased prison expenses. This thesis details a case study regarding reentry resources available to returning citizens and their influence on recidivism (returning to prison) likelihood among people released from prison. It explores existing research on recidivism, describes the interviews conducted by the researcher, discusses the implications of this research, and suggests further avenues for research and exploration to better inform policies and future actions regarding reentry resources. Ultimately, this thesis concludes that the most useful resources for returning citizens include resources directed towards meeting basic needs like food, clothing, and transportation, housing resources, support/mentorship groups, family support, and employment organizations. Following further research to strengthen or contradict the results of this paper, future funding and resources should be allocated to these areas which have been listed as most useful for successful reentry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Marissa Sulmeisters Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Forensic Interview Techniques <p>Experts question whether the techniques used to interview crime victims and witnesses during investigations are optimized to gather the most accurate information while minimizing the potential for negative experiences for the interviewee. In response, this study used a randomized-control design to compare a novel trauma-informed interview created for this study against an</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 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<p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>established interview, the Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI). Participants (<em>N</em> = 45) were recruited from a university human subjects pool. Participants watched a video depicting a robbery, responded to surveys during a 30-minute delay, and were randomized to answer questions about the video in the trauma-informed (<em>n</em> = 21) or ECI condition (<em>n</em> = 24). Participants were compared based on the accuracy and inaccuracy of their memory and their experience during the interview. The two techniques did not significantly differ on any outcome, suggesting the trauma-informed approach added little to the ECI, but also did not detract from the ECI, in a laboratory setting. Findings are discussed with respect to implications for the efficacy and uptake of evidence-based interview techniques in applied legal settings.</p> Avery Stackle, Naomi Wright, Anne DePrince Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Making the Violin Fashionable: Gender and Virtuosity in the Life of Camilla Urso <p>From the beginning of her career in 1840 to her death in 1902, Camilla Urso gained widespread success as a female violinist at a time when the virtuoso violin genre was dominated by men. Today women violinists are a commonplace occurrence, however in the nineteenth century they were a rare and unusual sight. Camilla Urso, and her influence as a nineteenth century violinist, is underrepresented in current musicological scholarship. The small amount of published scholarship on Urso either showcases incorrect biographical information or fail to consider Urso within a larger context of gender, virtuosity, and musical specificity. Drawing upon archival materials, digitized newspaper collections, and nineteenth century publication this project aims to reveal the extent of Urso’s influence as both a performer and pedagogue, therefore attempting to reassert her importance within nineteenth century musicological scholarship.</p> Maeve Nagel-Frazel, Petra Meyer Frazier Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Examining Climate Change Effects on Flowering in Moss Campion <p>Examining the variation in the collection date of herbarium specimens is a common method for studying the phenological effects of climate change on a flowering plant species. We used herbarium data to examine how warming temperatures have affected flowering time in <em>Silene acaulis</em> in the state of Colorado<em>. Silene acaulis</em> is an alpine tundra plant also known by the common name of moss campion. Using ordinal date of collection as a proxy for flowering date and year collected as a proxy for increasing average temperature, a linear regression test found that there was no significant relationship between increasing temperatures and flowering time. Further examination of the herbarium data revealed a pattern of summertime specimen collection for <em>Silene acaulis</em>. As a species that flowers in response to snow melt, the collection pattern indicates that herbarium data is insufficient for assessing the phenological effects of climate change on <em>Silene acaulis</em>. More intensive research on the relationship between snow melt and flowering time are needed to understand the impacts of climate change on <em>Silene acaulis</em>.</p> Mykaela Tanino-Springsteen, Olivia Dewitt Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Drivers and Barriers of Diversity and Inclusion in Business <p>This thesis examined diversity and inclusion (D&amp;I) strategies and barriers in businesses. I examined the literature on diversity management and inclusion and compared it with primary data taken through personal interviews with nine field experts. This comparison revealed that some field practice did match the literature. The literature and interviewees commonly identified D&amp;I as crucial to the success of employees and the business. In particular, the practitioners emphasized the importance of D&amp;I being clearly communicated as crucial and valued in the organization. However, the analysis also identified the discrepancies between the research and the real-world implementation of D&amp;I. The majority of these discrepancies were found in the terminology used by practitioners and the barriers in the D&amp;I field. The interviewees also pointed out that research on D&amp;I in academia is not utilized widely in practice. &nbsp;According to the field experts I interviewed, the principal drivers of D&amp;I include: structural policies and procedures, intentional recruiting, affinity groups, D&amp;I councils, education and training, and promotion consideration. Whereas&nbsp;the main barriers for D&amp;I turn out to be attitudinal barriers including resistance, bias, the feeling of being threatened and, to some extent, the structure of the organization. Additionally, the interviewees alluded to the idea of D&amp;I as a spectrum and emphasized the importance of continued learning, and explained the internal processes and surveys used to evaluate gaps in where their organization is failing at D&amp;I. These findings implicate a need for the implementation and constant adjustment of D&amp;I strategies to build inclusive organizations.</p> Alana Peaches Aragon Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fourth Down Decision Making: Challenging the Conservative Nature of NFL Coaches <p class="FirstParagraph"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">This thesis analyzes the hypothesis that coaches in the National Football League are often too conservative in their decision making on fourth downs. I used R Studio and NFL play-by-play data to simulate actual football plays and drives according to different fourth down strategies. By measuring expected points per drive over thousands of simulated drives, we are able to evaluate the effectiveness of different fourth down strategies. This research points to a number of conclusions regarding the nature of NFL coaches on fourth downs as well as the complexity of modeling and simulating decision making in a complex sport, such as professional football. While we are able to demonstrate areas where a more aggressive fourth down strategy could be utilized to a team’s advantage, this research demonstrates that fourth down decision is not a simple binary choice and that making this critical decision must be taken in context. In other words, further research should be done that takes into account additional variables and their impact on a team’s decision to “go for it” or not on fourth down.</span></p> Will Palmquist Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Business of Education <p>The globalized knowledge economy has altered the nature of work such that employees in almost all fields and positions must have strong STEM, global competency, and critical thinking skills. A lag in the American education system has created a skills deficit for companies. Many employers report an inability to find workers with the skillset required for knowledge-economy positions. This skills deficit is detrimental to both American workers and corporations, ultimately negatively affecting the American economy. This paper uses the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) exam and other subject-specific data to analyze American high school students’ performance in the areas of STEM, reading, global competency, and critical thinking. The data show American high schoolers perform behind their international peers and do not posses the basic skills needed for successful participation in the knowledge economy, particularly in the areas of STEM, global competency, and critical thinking. Potential solutions include Project-Based Learning (PBL) and school-business partnerships, continuing education and wage increases for STEM educators, and interdisciplinary learning. To ensure the continued success of American business, the education system will need to improve to cater to the changing workforce of the globalized knowledge economy. Failure to do so will harm students, employees, businesses, and the American economy.</p> Tatiana Follett Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 UKIP’s Use of Valence Issues to Impact Attitudes Towards EU Membership <p>In the book <em>Brexit: Why Britain Voted to Leave the European </em>Union, Clarke, Goodwin, and Whiteley suggest that certain valence issues, or issues “on which there is a broad agreement among the people and parties about what the policy should be,” are the determining factors that drove and continue to drive attitudes towards EU membership within the United Kingdom (Clark 2017, 68). These two main valence issues, public perceptions on economic conditions and immigration, are the central factors that determined whether or not UK citizens wanted to remain or leave the EU. Understanding these two main issues, the United Kingdom Independence Party, or UKIP, capitalized on these popular concerns of UK citizens and perpetuated the negative perceptions surrounding these policy matters. As a result, UKIP was able to successfully sway the public opinion of EU membership and eventually secure the Brexit vote by focusing their message on the two main valence issues.</p> <p>The first valence issue, the economy or the perception of the economy, is able to indicate the level EU support since “successful economic performance is likely to increase support for continued membership of the EU while mismanagement of the economy is likely to reduce support” (Clarke 2017, 70). Therefore, perceptions of the economy, evaluated through perceptions of the overall economic situation and unemployment at the state level, will indicate support of or opposition of EU membership. As people increasingly perceive a decline in the overall economy or a rise in unemployment rates, then support for EU membership will decrease accordingly. The more individuals that perceive a declining economy, whether or not the economy is actually declining, the more people that will vote to leave the EU.</p> <p>The second valence issue, the perception of immigration, similarly demonstrates attitudes towards EU membership since “an overwhelming majority of voters think that the British government should be able to control immigration and there is a consensus that successive British Governments have failed to do so” (Clarke 2017, 70). Since valence issues essentially evaluate whether or not EU membership ultimately benefits the UK and successfully delivers on issues that have widespread support, this negative public perception on immigration will lead to more negative attitudes towards EU membership. As the negative perception of immigration increases, measured through the percentage of the UK population that thought immigration was one of the two most important issues rather than whether or not immigration rates are actually increasing, then more UK citizens will want to leave the EU due to their increasingly negative attitudes towards EU membership.</p> Madeline Kincaid Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Protocols for Rearing Fall Webworm (Hyphantria cunea) in a Colony and Basic Methods for Laboratory and Field Experiments <p>Standardized protocols are an essential asset for research requiring the maintenance of live organisms. Ecological studies often involve collaborations between multiple teams that are spread across locations, and these collaborations benefit from sharing successful laboratory procedures. Our research team has studied the ecology of the fall webworm moth (<em>Hyphantria cunea</em>, hereafter FW) in North America for &gt;10 years, during which time we have established reliable procedures for starting and maintaining FW colonies under laboratory conditions. Here, we present a detailed review of the methods used to find and collect FW caterpillars in the field, house and rear caterpillars in the laboratory, handle pupae, and initiate diapause for overwintering. We also describe how to end diapause the following summer, care for emerging adult moths and mate them, and tend to eggs. Lastly, we test the effectiveness of some of our protocols related to mating adult moths to determine whether fertile eggs are produced. FW is a North American species that has been introduced to Europe and Asia where it is a major pest. FW is also becoming a model study system for ecological and evolutionary studies related to diet breadth. As more researchers begin studying the ecology and management of FW, laboratory colonies will play an important role for these projects. Our protocols will provide guidance to inform the successful study of this important insect.</p> Maelah Robinson-Castillo, Audrey Mitchell, Amanda Fasching, Mayra C. Vidal, Mariana Abarca, Gina M. Wimp, Blyssalyn Bieber, Dhaval K. Vyas, Shannon M. Murphy Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000