University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal <p>The DU Undergraduate Research Journal is a biannual, peer reviewed publication of research articles from all undergraduate disciplines. The mission of DUURJ is to encourage, recognize, and celebrate intellectual activity that occurs outside of the classroom, though exemplary research conducted in classroom settings may also be displayed. The journal staff is comprised entirely of DU undergraduate students and works in conjunction with the Undergraduate Research Association to promote academic research across all disciplines.</p> <p>DUURJ accepts manuscripts on a rolling basis. For information on submission guidelines, click <a href="">here</a>. If you have questions about how to submit, please see <a href="">here</a> or contact us directly at If you are interested in joining DUURJ as an editor, please email us at </p> <p> </p> en-US (Arlo Simmerman) (Kari Cobb) Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Does Audit Partner Gender and Firm Size Influence Accounting Quality? <p>This paper examines the association between audit partner gender and client financial reporting quality. I hypothesize that audit engagements with a Big 4 female audit partner will exhibit higher financial reporting quality than other auditors. I test my hypothesis by estimating a multivariate ordinary lease squares regression model. Consistent with my hypothesis, the results indicate that female auditors within the Big 4 accounting firms have the lowest discretionary accruals. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Grace Rooney Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Financial Implications of the Chinese Healthcare System <p>Since the inception of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese healthcare system has gone through many different phases and reforms. This paper introduces the state of China’s current healthcare system, the financial importance of the healthcare system, the government healthcare structure, hospital structure, and insurance system. The financial challenges of the Chinese healthcare system will be discussed, including shifts in demographics, insurance and out-of-pocket costs, national healthcare costs, overcrowding of large urban hospitals, divides between urban/rural and rich/poor healthcare, and overuse of medication. Next, the major reforms, which aimed to solve many of the financial challenges of the healthcare system, will be examined. The reforms will be studied based on five categories: insurance coverage and cost, individual and out-of-pocket costs, governmental costs, financial incentives to over-prescribe and over-treat, and medical outcomes and access to medical care. Afterward the outcomes will be analyzed to determine the efficacy of the reforms. The author will discuss her primary research to ensure the most recent opinions regarding the healthcare system have been included. Next, recommendations will be given for Chinese healthcare improvement based on the findings in the paper. Finally, the author will examine how the Chinese healthcare system impacts the field of finance as a whole.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Lilly Schneider, Kenneth Leung Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Ominous Horizon <p>The notorious dictator, Bentio Mussolini, became Prime Minister of Italy in 1922- 3 years after the Treaty of Versailles concluded the settlements for World War I in the summer of 1919. Shortly thereafter, Mussolini established his formidable dictatorship that would last 23 years. Post-war Italy experienced economic stagnation, high unemployment, inflation, frequent labor strikes, and stalled production and output among other problems. Many Italians were also frustrated that their country did not recieve more recognition in the Versailles Treaty for its contribution to the Allied Cause in the Great War. Interestingly, though, the sitution in Italy was very similar to other countries at the same time that did not witness their own Fascist revolution. Especially, when compared to Germany at the same time, Italy offers a compelling case, as the Nazis in Germany, despite far worse circumstances in their country, did not come to power until around ten years after Mussolini in Italy. In this essay, I offer an explanation to the many perplexing questions surrounding Mussolini's sudden and aboslute rise in circumstances probably inconsisistent with expectations for a setting preceding a revolution. In sum, Mussolini used a variety of tactics and methods combined with the powerful attraction of his personality to seize power and vindicate his creation of a totalitarian autocracy. I finish with a statement on the future for democracy and what democracy must do to survive going forward.</p> Matthew Bergh Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Media Framing in the Centennial Olympic Park Bombing <p>Terrorist attacks often dominate news cycles as reporters seek to interpret the attack through their own desired framing tools. Since “humans are predisposed to attend to negative and threatening information” (Sui et al., 2017), news coverage of terrorist attacks receive a lot of attention thus, how the attack is framed can manipulate the narrative portrayed to the public. This study utilized the Nexus database to examine framing techniques used by a local and an international newspaper in reporting on the Atlanta Centennial Olympic Park bombings both before and after a subject was identified by the FBI. This paper explores how perpetrator identity, legitimacy in sources, and perceived future threats effected how the bombing was covered. Overall, once a suspect had been named, both news outlets utilized “othering” techniques to deemphasize the domestic terrorism label, the sources used became less qualified, and they stopped speculating about the possibility of another attack.</p> Easton Bush Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Developing Effective Intervention <p>Despite numerous treaties and international treaties aimed at stopping genocide, genocidal mass killings continue to take place within the current international system. In order to better understand how to better combat genocide, scholars have developed two main approaches: <em>intervention</em> and <em>prevention</em>. The interventionist approach argues genocide can be stopped in its tracks through use of military force and targeted diplomacy, while the preventionist approach argues pre-emptive action is needed to truly stop genocide. Both approaches, however, have relied to heavily on hypothetical analysis of how genocides could have turned out differently given certain factors. This study instead aims to use case study analysis to compare two “genocidal moments”—one where genocide did take place, Srebrenica in 1995, and one where genocide did not take place, the Kosovo War in 1998 and 1999. To define, this term “genocidal moment,” this study uses Gregory Stanton’s “The 10 Stages of Genocide.” Ultimately, this study concludes that effective humanitarian interventions cannot remain neutral and, instead, must side with victims and against perpetrators.</p> Caleb Bryan Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Meddling in the Post-Black Death Economy <p>The Black Death caused a mass mortality in England, drastically affecting society. However, it was the aftermath of the plague that had the greatest impacts. The loss of life removed pressure on the economy due to population density, which gave the peasants opportunities to improve their lives. But that was a short-lived phenomenon; the peasantry ultimately remained repressed, as they had been prior to the plague. Edward III meddled in the English economy in the wake of the Black Death by introductions price and wage regulations. These efforts were to maintain the status quo in English society so that the king could fulfill his personal political priorities. This paper analyzes the role of the Crown in England’s post-Black Death economy and the continued repression of the peasantry.</p> Leah DiCiesare, Daniel Melleno Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Records of Enriched Uranium Atmospheric Deposition in Pond Sediments in Piketon, OH <p>The enrichment of uranium, often for nuclear weapons programs and commercial nuclear reactors, produces higher concentrations of radioactive uranium 235 (<sup>235</sup>U) than what naturally occurs, which can pose a human health hazard. The most abundant naturally occurring uranium isotope is <sup>238</sup>U, which is still radioactive, however a higher concentration of <sup>235</sup>U skews the observed isotopic uranium distribution. The Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, located near Piketon, OH, enriched uranium from 1954 to 2001 and <sup>235</sup>U pollution has recently been detected in air and sediment samples in the surrounding community. The extent of the <sup>235</sup>U contamination was tested using sediment core samples from ponds within the vicinity of the plant. Cores were processed in the laboratory by depth intervals to capture the history of atmospheric deposition of <sup>235</sup>U. Analyzing the samples with an ICPMS instrument allowed for ratios between enriched <sup>235</sup>U and naturally occurring <sup>238</sup>U to be calculated, thus unearthing the level of contamination. These results will provide the citizens of Piketon, OH with scientific evidence to facilitate their understanding of the uranium contamination within their community.</p> Brianna Herner, Michael Ketterer, Brian Majestic Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Undecided <p>This is a big band composition by Quinn Dymalski.</p> Quinn Dymalski Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Faculty Spotlight: Dr. Corinne Lengsfeld <p>n/a</p> Bailey McGinley, Owen McKessy Copyright (c) 2021 University of Denver Undergraduate Research Journal Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000